Both early rice straw and late rice straw can be used, but the late rice straw has a long growing period, and the texture of the straw is rougher. It is used to cultivate large bulbous capsella mushrooms, which has a longer maturation period and higher yield. The quality of rice straw has a direct impact on the yield of Stropharia. Straw suitable for cultivation of strophy mushrooms should be dry and fresh. Straw that has been stored for a long period of time may have been partially decomposed due to the action of microorganisms, and hides such as cockroaches, nematodes, collembola, molds, etc., which will seriously affect the yield and are not suitable for cultivation. Clean, fresh, and dry straw is not conducive to the growth of various molds and pests. Therefore, the mycelium growth of Stropharia rugoso-annulata on this culture medium is very fast and the yield of fresh mushrooms is the highest. Experiments have shown that Stropharia ostreatus can produce 12 kilograms of mushrooms per square meter on fresh straw (straw), while the straw used last year only produces 5 kilograms of fresh mushrooms per square meter, and grows on old stalks of straw. The square meter produces only 1 kilogram of fresh mushrooms. In addition to the main materials, it is also necessary to prepare the cover for the construction of the pile and the rainproof film. Cover can be used waste sacks, after cleaning and drying, cut the bottom and side, flattening, larger holes to make up. It can also be covered with thick non-woven fabrics or straws, but also with piles of waste newspapers as coverings.
2. Cultivation methods Stropharia globosa can be cultivated in the mushroom house, box cultivation and bed frame cultivation, not suitable for intensive indoor cultivation. At present, Germany, Poland, and the United States mainly use Yangshuo in outdoor (gardens and orchards) for extensive bare land or protected cultivation. In China, there are many outdoor raw materials cultivation, because no special equipment is required, the production is simple, and easy to manage, the cultivation cost is low, and the economic benefits are good.
3. The cultivation season depends on the biological characteristics of Stropharia and the conditions of the local climate and cultivation facilities. In Central and Eastern European countries, Stropharia is cultivated from mid-May to mid-June. In China's North China area, if it is protected by a plastic greenhouse, except for a brief winter and hot summer, production can be arranged almost all the year round.
For example, in the stereotyped planting of citrus, chestnut and other gardens with annual results, it is necessary to consider the adoption of different varieties of fruits in order to form a better three-dimensional cultivation pattern with proper combination, reasonable structure, and remarkable economic benefits. Closing date.
The warmer areas can be cultivated using the winter sheds and protected sheds. The sowing period should be arranged from mid-late November to early December, so that the peak of the mushrooming period will be around the Spring Festival, or the sowing date will be adjusted according to market demand, so that the peak of the mushrooming season will be in the off-season season of vegetables or other seasons where the amount of mushroom is listed is small. .
4. Outdoor cultivation of cultivation sites is the main method of cultivation of Stropharia. Warm, sheltered and shaded areas provide a microclimate suitable for the growth of Stropharia capsula. The semi-shaded areas are more suitable for the growth of Stropharia capsula, but continued shading (such as shade under large trees) can seriously interfere with the large spherical caps. Mushroom growth and development.
(1) Choice of Cultivation Fields 1 It is advisable to choose a place near the water source where drainage is convenient. Due to the large amount of straw used in the cultivation, it needs to be soaked, and the whole management process needs to spray moisturize and require water. However, it is not possible to collect water in the rainy season to ensure the normal growth of Stropharia.
2 Fertilized in fertile soil, rich in humus and loose loam bed, is beneficial to early mushrooming and increase yield.
3 should choose to shelter from the wind, sunny, and some shaded places. The giant oyster mushroom is raised in a semi-shade environment. Avoid sloppy and overcast areas.
Appropriate suitable planting can get better economic benefits, or slightly modified to create conditions to meet the growth and development requirements of Stropharia. For example, in citrus, chestnut, garden or winter fields, three-dimensional planting, the combination of fruit bacteria and forest bacteria, rational use of light energy resources. Fruit trees and garden trees create a shady and moist environment for Stropharia. Oxygen released from the photosynthesis of green plants greatly satisfies the aerobic characteristics of Stropharia gigantea. The carbon dioxide emitted from Stropharia gigantea increases Photosynthesis of fruit trees, they have both complementary nutrients, but also a good cycle of gas exchange, there are obvious economic, ecological and social benefits.
(2) Soil preparation The first step is to create a drainage ditch around the cultivation field, mainly to prevent accumulation of water after the rain. The specific method of soil preparation is to first take some of the topsoil of the surface and put them aside for later use. Then the land is formed into a ridge shape. The middle is slightly higher, the two sides are slightly lower, the height is 10 to 15 cm, and the width is 90 cm. , 150 centimeters in length, with a distance of 40 centimeters between the temple and the temple.
If cultivated in the garden, according to the topography of the garden, the mushroom bed can be built directly on the loquat, so as not to affect the growth of the trees, it is not necessary to turn the soil and build the mushroom bed in the middle of the two trees or on the side close to the loquat, so as to facilitate Orchard management.
In order to create a semi-shade eco-environment for the creation of a large bulbous mushroom, a plastic shade net can be added to the top to cover the top of the building with plastic shade nets, or to use shaded crops such as peas, autumn cucumbers, gourd, and other shades. You can create a semi-shade, moisturizing, and warming environment by adding a straw curtain. Ventilation management is based on changes in temperature and mushrooming conditions.
(3) Site disinfection Disinfection of the site should be carried out before the pile has been built after the site preparation has been completed. You can pour 1% tea seed cake water on the pot to prevent it from harming. Spray dichlorvos on and around the ripples. If you use a mountain mushroom farm, you must use mirex and termite powder to kill ants.
5. Drilling pre-stack
(1) Straw soaking water The straw must first absorb enough water before building a pile. Introduce the clean water into the ditch or pool, soak the straw directly into the ditch or pool, soak the grass and step on the grass. The soaking time is generally about 2 days. Different varieties of straw have slightly different time for soaking. The softer early-stage straw can be steeped for 36 to 40 hours. The late straw and single-season straw texture are more solid and the time for soaking the grass is longer, about 48 hours. One of the main purposes of straw soaking is to allow straw to fully absorb enough water, second, to lower the pH in the matrix, and third, to make it soft to facilitate handling and to make the straw tighter. The use of pool soaking grass, need to change the water 1 to 2 times a day.
In addition to the direct soaking method, straw can also be used to suck enough moisture. The specific approach is to put straw on the ground, spray 2 to 3 times a day, and spray water for 6 to 10 days. If the quantity is large, it must be turned several times to make the straw absorb water evenly. Short, scattered straw can be soaked or showered in bags or baskets.
For steeped or soaked straw, drain naturally for 12 to 24 hours to allow the moisture content to reach 70% to 75% of the optimum humidity. A representative small piece of rice straw can be hand-picked and tightened. If there is water droplets oozing from the grass, and the water droplets are broken, indicating that the water content is moderate; if the water droplets continue to line, indicating that the water content is too high, can be extended Its drain time. If there is no water droplets after tightening, it means that the water content is low, and it is necessary to make up the water and build a heap.
(2) Pre-fermentation During daytime temperatures above 23Â°C, pre-fermentation is required to prevent the growth of hyphae after the stack is fermented and the temperature rises. It is best to pre-fermentate when sowing in late summer and early autumn. The specific approach is to soak or soak the grass on a relatively flat ground, pile into a width of about 1.5 to 2 meters, 1 to 1.5 meters high, the length of the haystack, to pile solid, turn every 3 days Heap, another 2 to 3 days can be moved into the cultivation field to build a heap.
The pre-fermentation can be carried out by combining the steps in the actual cultivation, that is, the soaked grass is piled up after being picked up from the ditch, on the one hand, it is allowed to drain the excess water, and on the other hand, the time is appropriately extended to let it ferment. Warm up, and build the heap separately after 2 to 3 days. When this method is adopted, the moisture content of rice straw must be mastered, especially if the grass stacked on the top layer is often dry, it is necessary to make up the water before planting and constructing the heap. Otherwise, the temperature will increase after the heap is built, which will affect the colonization of the hyphae.
6. Build a sowing
(1) After the process before the construction of the sowing is completed, the pile can be built. The most important thing for stacking bacterium beds is to push the stalks down. Forage thickness 20 cm, the maximum thickness of not more than 30 cm, not less than 20 cm. The amount of hay used per square meter is 20 to 30 kilograms, and the amount used is 600 to 700 grams. When the grass is piled on the first layer, the grass is about 10 centimeters from the side of the planter. Generally, it is piled in 3 layers, each layer is about 8 centimeters thick, and the strains are weighed into the size of a pigeon egg and sowed between the two layers of grass. The depth of the sowing hole is 5 to 8 cm. The plum blossoms are used on demand and the hole distance is 10 to 12 cm. Increasing the number of holes for sowing can make mycelium grow faster.
With regard to the form of piles of grass, various places can be carried out according to local conditions. For example, the method of cultivating straw grass by straw mushroom first, and then layering and stacking, or tying the material to a larger grass handle (having a hay weight of 5 to 7 kg), inserting the bacteria into the straw, Then put the whole bundle of grass on the ground. Generally, three bales of grass can be piled together. No matter what type of construction is used, the following principles must be mastered:
1 The haystack should be as close as possible to facilitate the growth of mycelium, and the condition can be rolled and then built.
2 It is better to use a small pile, usually about 1 square meter, and the stack height is about 25 centimeters. As long as the piles are built to facilitate walking, the spacing can be appropriately reduced to make full use of the land.
3 The trapezoid shape is better, the bottom layer is larger, and the top surface is inwardly contracted so as to cover the soil.
Do not over-smash the 4 bacterial seed blocks. Generally, the size of the pigeon eggs is good.
After the completion of the construction of the reactor, select 3 to 4 representative haystacks and insert a thermometer to observe the reactor temperature.
(2) Covering the cover After the sowing is completed, cover is placed on the stack of grass. Old linen, non-woven fabrics, straw curtains, old newspapers, etc. can be used for the cover. The old sacks have strong moisture retention and are easy to handle. The best results are generally obtained with a single layer. Large area crops can also be covered with straw curtains.
Covers on haystacks should always be kept moist to prevent haystacks from drying out. Saturate the sacks in clean water, remove them and drain them to cover the haystacks. The grass curtains used for covering should not be too sparse or too thick, so that when the water is sprayed on the straw curtain, the excess water does not leak into the material. If the use of non-woven fabrics, old newspapers, because of its light weight, easy to be lifted by the wind, small stones can be pressed.
7. Management during germination period The regulation of temperature and humidity is a central part of cultivation management. Stropharia capsularis requires a heap temperature of 22 to 28Â°C during the mycelial growth stage, and the moisture content of the culture material is 70% to 75%, and the relative humidity in the air is 85% to 90%. After sowing, appropriate control measures should be taken according to the actual situation to maintain its appropriate temperature and humidity indicators, and create a favorable environment for hyphae recovery and growth.
(1) Moss bed moisture regulation Before the stack is built, the straw must absorb enough water, which is the key to ensure that the mushroom bed maintains sufficient humidity. Within 20 days after sowing, it is generally not directly sprayed on the mushroom bed. Normally, the replenishing water is sprayed on the covering, and no excess water is allowed to flow into the material, which is favorable for the growth of the mycelia in the pile. If the early rice straw absorbs water insufficiently, the straw will grow white and dry after the pile is built, which will slow the growth of mycelium. If the air temperature is high, it will also cause a significant increase in the temperature of the heap, affect the survival of the bacteria species, even if the water is added later, it is difficult to achieve satisfactory results. This not only increases the workload, but also is not conducive to mycelial growth. For outdoor cultivation, plastic film is needed to prevent rain, especially in the 20 days after sowing. Rainwater infiltration can cause excessive humidity in the heap. If it encounters rain during this period, it can be covered with a film on the cover. After the rain, the film is removed and the water around the mushroom bed is eliminated.
(2) The hypha growth stage of the hyphae should be sprayed with water in a timely manner. The first 20 days generally do not spray water or less water, the amount of mycelium on the mushroom bed has been significantly increased, occupying more than 1/2 of the culture material, such as the grass on the surface of the mushroom bed should be properly sprayed when it is dry and white. Mushroom different parts of the water spray should also have differences, the side of the mushroom bed should be more than spray, the middle part of the spray or not spray, if the mushroom bed has reached the required humidity, do not spray every day, otherwise it will cause mycelium decline.
(3) Reactor temperature regulation After 1 to 2 days after planting, the temperature of the reactor will generally increase slightly. The stack temperature is required to be between 20 and 30Â°C, preferably around 25Â°C, so that the mycelium grows quickly and is robust. After the construction of the piles for planting, the changes in the temperature of the stacks should be regularly observed each morning and afternoon so that appropriate measures can be taken in time to prevent anomalies in the stack temperature. When the heap temperature is below 20Â°C, grass quilts are thickened in the morning and at night, covered with plastic film, and then lifted off when the sunrise. When the temperature of the reactor is high, the cause of the increase in the temperature of the reactor should be found and corresponding countermeasures should be taken. If the straw soaking time is too short, or the water absorption is not uniform, the stack temperature will increase significantly after 2 to 3 days after the pile is built, which may exceed 32Â°C. At this point, the upper part of the haystack should be opened and sprinkled properly. After 2 to 3 days, the haystacks should be re-arranged and it is best to replant part of the strains. If the stack temperature is high but does not exceed 30Â°C, simply remove the cover and play 2 to 3 holes at intervals in the center of the haystack. The hole diameter is about 3 cm and the hole depth is 15 to 20 cm. The heap temperature of the culture medium is mainly affected by the temperature. Whether the culture materials need to be pre-fermented should be flexibly handled according to the cultivation season. In the early summer of summer, it is advisable to pre-fermentate when the temperature is high, and not to pre-fermentate when the temperature is too low to maintain the heap temperature. After sowing the grass, the piles are sown directly. Under the condition of low temperature, the growth of mycelia can also be promoted.
In addition, the cultivation of Stropharia bulbs at different seasons can also adjust the stacking temperature through the different shades and ventilation degrees of the site. 8. Around 30 days after sowing on the soil, the hyphae are nearly full of culture material. At this time, the heap can be covered with soil. Sometimes the surface culture material is dry, and no hyphae can be seen on the surface of the haystack. You can gently dig the material surface and check the hyphae in the middle and lower layers. If the two inoculated hyphae in the two adjacent points are close to each other, then You can cover the soil. The specific soil cover time should also be treated differently in combination with different seasons and different climatic conditions. If the pile is planted in early spring season, in case of rain, the hyphae will be close to the long-distributed material before covering the soil; if the pile is planted in the fall, the climate is relatively dry, and the soil may be properly covered in advance, or it may be divided into secondary coverings, that is, the first time When constructing the heap, a small amount of soil was covered and only the top of the pile was covered, and some of the straw was still visible. The second time the soil was covered and the hyphae approached the open material.
Mushroom cover soil on the one hand can promote the kinks of the hyphae, on the other hand, it also plays an active role in heat preservation and moisturizing. Under normal circumstances, under the conditions of pure culture, the mycelium of Stropharia ergata is not able to form fruit bodies despite the vigorous propagation of mycelium in the culture materials, or it may take a long time before a few fruit bodies appear. But to cover suitable soil and meet its appropriate temperature and humidity, fruiting bodies can be formed quickly.
(1) Selection of Covering Soil The quality of covered soil has a great influence on the yield of Stropharia. The earth-covering materials are required to be fertile, loose, capable of holding (sucking) water, and eliminating carbon dioxide and other gases generated in the culture materials. Humus soil has protective properties, a granular structure, suitable for earth covering materials. Foreign countries believe that 50% of the humus soil plus 50% peat soil, the pH value of 5.7 can be used as a standard material for the inspection. In practical cultivation, more local materials are used, and the loess soil with loose texture is selected. This soft soil has a high water retention rate and is rich in humus with a pH of 5.5-6.5. Forest soil is also suitable as cover material. Alkaline, viscous, lacking humus, poor crumb structure, or poor sand retention, sandy loam, clay, or pure peat are not suitable for casing materials.
(2) Method of covering soil The pre-prepared loam soil is spread on a bed of bacteria with a thickness of 2 to 4 cm and a maximum of 5 cm, and about 0.05 cubic meters of soil per square meter of the bed of bacteria. After the cover soil must adjust the humidity of the cover soil, requiring soil water retention rate of 36% to 37%. A simple test method for the soil water retention rate is to squeeze the soil particles by hand. The soil particles become flat but not broken, and they are not sticky, indicating that the water content is appropriate.
After the soil covering the soil, the dried bacteria bed can be sprayed with water, requiring finer droplets, so that the water can cover the soil without entering the material. Under normal circumstances, the mycelium can be seen climbing on the cover soil 2 to 3 days after the cover soil. The main work after the soil cover is to regulate the humidity of the cover soil. In order to prevent wet inside, it is best to use wet top cover. The amount of water spray should be flexibly controlled according to the degree of wetness and weather conditions of the site. As long as the water content of the bacteria bed is suitable, it can also be sprayed for 1 to 2 days or more. The moisture content inside the bacteria bed should not be too high, otherwise it will cause mycelial decay.
9. During the formation of fruiting bodies, the hyphae become overgrown and covered with soil, which gradually shifts to the reproductive stage. Generally 15 to 20 days after the cover soil can be mushroom. Management at this stage is another critical period for cultivation of Stropharia. The main focus of work is on moisturizing and ventilation.
The suitable relative temperature for the space of the mushroom of the common bulb mushroom is 90%~95%. When the climate is dry, pay attention to the moisturizing of the mushroom bed, usually to keep the cover and the cover soil wet. If sack covers are used, soak it in clean water, remove excess moisture, and then cover the bed of bacteria. Generally, treat it once or twice a day. If grass cover is used, it can be moisturized by spraying. When the cover is opened, the wet and dry conditions of the cover soil are checked. If the cover soil is dry and white, it must be sprayed properly to make it wet. Spray water must not be excessive, excess water in the material will affect the mushroom bed mushroom. In addition, the water content of the heap was sampled. After the hyphae had eaten through the straw, the straw turned pale yellow, and the culture material was squeezed by hand. The culture material was soft and moist, and sometimes there was a slight drop of water. This is normal. phenomenon. If there is mildew or a continuous line of water after extrusion, that is, if the water content is too high, the following remedial measures should be promptly taken. Otherwise, all previous efforts will be abandoned.
(1) Stop water spraying, lift cover, strengthen ventilation, promote evaporation of water in the bacteria bed, make the cover and cover soil dry, and then use light spray until the water content in the pile falls. Promote its fruiting.
(2) Drain the drain to minimize the groundwater level.
(3) Play several holes from the surface of the bed of bacteria or on the side near the ground to promote air circulation in the bed of bacteria.
Strengthen the ventilation and light transmission, and let it receive natural light directly while spraying water and lifting the cover every day. The quality of ventilation can also affect the quality and yield of mushrooms. When there are a large number of fruiting bodies in the bed, more attention should be paid to ventilation. In particular, plastic sheds are used for cultivation. The number of ventilations needs to be increased and the ventilation time is extended, sometimes for 1-2 hours. In the citrus garden cultivation, fresh air does not have to increase ventilation times. The site is well ventilated, the stalks of the grown mushrooms are short, and the mushrooms are robust and have a high yield.
The suitable temperature for the mushroom of the common bulb is 12 to 25Â°C. When the temperature is lower than 4Â°C or exceeds 30Â°C, the mushroom is not long. The different seasons of Stropharia showed a large difference in the fruiting period. In the period from October to December and March to April in Fujian Province, the temperature is suitable, and the mushroom grows quickly and neatly. The fruiting time is also shortened accordingly. In late autumn or winter sowing, the whole growing period is significantly prolonged, and its fruiting period will be relatively prolonged. In order to adjust the suitable mushrooming temperature, the ambient temperature can be in an ideal range by adjusting the illumination time, the spraying time, and the degree of ventilation of the site during the mushrooming period. During the period of the long mushroom, if it encounters frost, one must pay attention to the thick grass, cover small buds, and the second is to spray less water or not to prevent direct damage by freezing. In Guangdong and Guangdong, as long as the cover is covered with grass cover and the protection of the ground temperature, the buds can be safely used. However, if the buds are directly exposed and the temperature is lower than 0Â°C, the buds are subject to dry cold, especially the northwesterly winds. Attacks can cause freezing damage. Protected shed cultivation will not cause freezing damage even if it is continuously low temperature. The seedlings are planted in late autumn or winter and the growth of mycelium seems to be very slow. However, the low temperature of frost does not cause freezing damage to the mycelia, and it can safely survive the winter.
During the fruiting period, the water, aeration, and picking mushrooms often have to be moved over the cover and must be handled gently during the management process. Especially when there are a large number of mushroom buds on the bed, the bamboo can be used to slightly lift the cover and prevent touching. Injury mushroom buds.
10. Diseases and Insect Pest Control The Stropharia capsella has strong resistance and is easy to cultivate. According to the practice of cultivation and the promotion in recent years, no serious damage has been done to the growth of Stropharia. However, before the mushrooming, some bacteria are occasionally seen, such as comatus, plate mushroom, bare cap mushroom, and other competitive bacteria, of which the ghost umbrella is more common. In the cultivation process of Stropharia, more common pests are fleas, hoppers, mushroom mosquitoes, ants, cockroaches and so on. The main prevention and control measures are now described as follows:
(1) Coprinus usually occurs when a mycelium grows poorly on a bed of bacteria or when a poor quality straw is used as a culture medium. The main prevention measures are:
1 Straw needs to be fresh and dry, and let it be exposed to the sun for 2 to 3 days before cultivation. Use sun light to kill the comatus and other miscellaneous spores.
2 Grasp the moisture content of the culture material during the cultivation process so that the mycelium grows robustly and its mycelium is absolutely dominant.
3 Coprinus comatus and Stropharia spp. belong to the fungus, which grows in the same environment, and it is difficult to completely eradicate. When the fruit body is found in the bed, it should be removed as soon as possible.
(2) Prevention and control measures for common pests 1 Select a site, and it is forbidden to cultivate in areas where there are many termites. It is best not to keep the site for many years in order to avoid breeding pests.
2 During the cultivation process, 0.5% of dichlorvos cotton balls can be placed around the bed to repel insects such as cockroaches, hoppers and mushroom mosquitoes. It is also possible to put newspapers, waste cloths and sugar liquids on the bed of bacteria, or to seduce and kill crickets with freshly roasted pork bones or oil cakes. For collembola, one part of honey, 10 parts of water and 90% of trichlorfon are mixed to seduce.
3 When the ant nest is found in the cultivation field or haystack, it should be promptly sprinkled and killed. If it is red ant, red ants can be used to disperse the powder on the ant road. After the ants eat it, they can die and die. The effect is very good. For white ants, termite powder 1 to 3 grams can be sprayed into the ant nest for about 5 to 7 days.
In the dark and humid environment, we should choose a cultivation site with high topography, convenient drainage and irrigation, and 50% to 70% shade. For the prevention and control of cockroaches, it is possible to use their pattern of clear rain and rain to carry out manual killing, and it is also possible to spray 10% of salt water around the field to drive the cockroaches.
5 In outdoor cultivation fields, rats often make nests on the grass, destroy the bed of bacteria, and injure the mycelium and mushroom buds. In the early stages, there may be methods to cut food or take baiting. It is also possible to drip blood around the cultivation field and beside the bed of bacteria, allowing other mice to flee.
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